Segovia is the Oberlin Graduate Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity in Vanderbilt University Divinity School, where he has taught since 1984. He is also a member of the theology faculty of Stellenbosch University in South Africa.
He teaches and researches in the fields of early Christian origins, theological studies, and cultural studies, including non-Western Christian theologies, postcolonial, minority and diaspora studies. Segovia has served on the editorial boards of several academic journals, has worked as consultant for foundations and publishing houses, and has lectured both nationally and internationally. He is also a past president of the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians in the United States.